FHIR confidentiality

There are 3 valuesets in FHIR for confidentiality-

  1. ValueSet: V3 Value Setx_BasicConfidentialityKind
  2. ValueSet: v3 Code System Confidentiality
  3. ValueSet: [V3 Value SetConfidentialityClassification]

Can one attribute (ie Patient.birthDate) be associated to multiple confidentiality codes?
Do confidentiality codes need to be exchanged as a piece of metadata with every record in the json payload? Or how is the confidentiality of an attribute being relayed to the end user?

Generally, confidentiality isn’t conveyed at the attribute level at all. Resource.meta.security is used to convey security considerations (and yes, there can be multiple security considerations in play at once). If you wanted to convey security considerations for individual data elements, you’d need to use extensions.